High yield seed materials are very important to increase the production per unit area. The location specific geno-types plays important role to enhance production. As we know that the production of rice in China has increased as much as 20 t/ha and average yield is about 6.5 t/ha in China. But in our country (India) the highest yield about is 7 t/ha of hybrid rice with average yield about is 3.5 t/ ha. These yield difference due to only high yield variety (hybrid) or different Geno type of crops.
Hence, high yield variety of crops should be developed or adopted as per climatic condition and soil type. In Indian farmers, the certified seeds and breeder seeds are being used only 30 and 9-10% of farmers and rest 60% of framers are using own seeds which was saved from last year crops for seeding next crops.
Therefore, the quality seed has important role for getting more production per unit area.
Now days, genetically modified (GM) seeds are being used for particulars crops as Bt cotton which save the crops from bollworm insects and it was introduce in 2002 in India and now about 11.5 M ha area of Bt Cotton is being cultivated by farmers of about 95% of total area under cotton. In 2002 approval for the commercial release of Bt cotton hybrids/ varieties resistant to cotton bollworm.
Now, Bt tomato, Bt brinjal and some other crops are being struggling for getting government approval for commercial release to farmers field in the Indian market due to GM crops threaten biodiversity. Many countries in world have banned GM crops due to environmental threat.
Bt Brinjal resistant to brinjal shoot fly developed by M/S Mahyco in collaboration with University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad; Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi. GM-mustard as Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11 or DMH-11 is a genetically modified variety of mustard developed by the Delhi University’s Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants.
Golden rice was developed as GM crop to full fill deficiency of vitamin A. In the current kharif season, farmers would undertake mass sowing of GM seeds for maize, soyabean, mustard brinjal and herbicide tolerant (Ht) cotton, although these are not approved.
Therefore, locally available geno type should hydride to develop high variety which would be suitable for local climate and soil type.